This study aimed to review the literature regarding the mechanisms of transition from asymptomatic colonization to induction of otitis media and how the insight into the pathogenesis of otitis media has the potential to help design future otitis media-directed vaccines. Respiratory viruses have long been shown to predispose individuals to bacterial respiratory infections, such as otitis media. Furthermore, an understanding of the transcriptional and proteomic changes occurring in bacteria during transition to infection has led to identification of novel vaccine targets that are disease-specific and will not affect asymptomatic colonization. This approach will avoid major changes in the delicate balance of microorganisms in the respiratory tract microbiome due to elimination of S. Our recent findings are reviewed in the context of the current literature on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of otitis media. We also discuss how other otopathogens, such as Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis , as well as the normal respiratory microbiome, can modulate the ability of pneumococci to cause infection. Furthermore, the unsatisfactory protection offered by the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is highlighted and we review potential future strategies emerging to confer a more specific protection against otitis media.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Otitis Media - American Family Physician
Mason, Ellen R. We studied, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and penicillin-binding protein 2b amplicon-restriction profiles, pneumococcal isolates recovered from children with acute otitis media during 1 January—31 December and The proportion of nonvaccine serogroups increased from Among children who received at least 2 doses of the pneumococcal 7-valent protein conjugate PNC7 vaccine, Overall, the serogroups involved in capsular switching were NT, , , and the Spanish 23F clone. In and ,
Otitis Media: Diagnosis and Treatment
This is a corrected version of the article that appeared in print. Patient information: See related handout on ear infections in children , written by the authors of this article. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae , and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial isolates from the middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media.
Otits media OM is the most frequent indication for antimicrobial prescription to US children. Streptococcus pneumoniae S. Successful eradication of S. However, oral drug administration is challenging for parents. Lack of adherence has been associated with treatment failure or early relapse.